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King Richard I Lionheart (1157-1199) watches Muslim prisoners being beheaded after the capture of Acre in 1189. When it became apparent that Saladin was not willing to pay the terms of the treaty at Acre, Richard had more than 3.000 Muslim prisoners executed on August 20 outside of Acre in full view of Saladin's camp. From Sebastien Mamerot's "Les Passages d'outremer faits par les Français contre les Turcs depuis Charlemagne jusqu'en 1462". Illuminated manuscript on parchment (287 sheets, 32x23 cm). Bourges, France; 1474-1475.
The Mongolian seige of Bagdad in 1258. Double-page from Rashid al-Din's (1247 - 1318) enormous universal history, the "Jami al-Tawarikh". 320 x 230 mm Herat, Afghanistan; around 1430-1434 The Jami al-Tawarikh was commissioned by Mahmud Ghazan, begun as a history of the Mongols and their dynasty and then expanded to include history from Adam to Rashid al-Din's present day. It was completed during the reign of Oljeitu in 1307-1316. The Jami' al-Tawarikh is perhaps the single most comprehensive Persian source on the Mongol period. Sayf Al-Vahedi, who worked as painter in the workshop-library of Baysonqor, is the author of the majority of the illustrations of this manuscript. Realized on a double page, this painting illustrates the siege of Baghdad by the Mongolian armies of Hulagu Khan in 1258. Caliph Al-Musta'sim crosses the bridge on the Tigris, ready to meet Hulagu Kahn (grandson of Genghis Khan). On the top of the walls of the city a Persan poem written by Sayf Al-Vahedi celebrates the charm of Baghdad.
Ottoman soldiers outside Tiflis (Author: Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, double-page from the"Nusretname", Turkey, 1582). The Ottoman army parading before the walls of Tiflis (Tblisi) in August 1578 after the city had been evacuated by Da' ud Han. Lala Mustafa Pasha is shown on horseback on the right hand side. A double-page miniature painting from a sixteenth century manuscript of the Nusretname, an account of the Turkish conquest of Georgia by Lala Mustafa Pasha in 1578.
Manesse Codex (sheet 11v): Duke Heinrich IV of Schlesien Breslau (around 1253-1290) depicted with minstrels at the court of Breslau. Zurich, Switzerland; 1305-1340. The Manesse Codex or Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. Pal. germ. 848) is a book copied and illustrated between 1305-1340 in Zürich, presumably compiled by Johannes Hadlaub. It contains love songs in Middle High German by important poets, several of whom were famous rulers. The term for these poets, Minnesänger, combines the words for "romantic love" and "singer", reflecting the content of the poetry, which adapted the Provençal troubador tradition to German. This manuscript has 137 portraits of the authors which depict each poet, some of them as idealized knights, dressed in their own heraldic colors and devices, making it possible for readers to identify them.
Cavaliers under the command of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius are put to flight by sarazens during a battle near Antioch in 632. From "La fleur des histoires de la terre d'Orient des Hayton". Illumination on parchment. Probably Catalonia; middle of the 14th century. 187mm x 254mm Cod.2623, fol.15r