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Karl Marx (1818-1883) was an influential philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmen's Association. While Marx addressed a wide range of issues, he is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle." Photography, 19th century.
A Neanderthal tomb burial from La Chapelle aux Saints, France, dating from about 50,000 years ago. The extreme infirmities of the skeleton of an old man found at La Chapelle suggest that he was cared for by other members of his clan, or he would not have survived as long as he did. Such discoveries helped to change the original perception of Neanderthals as being brutish and ape-like.
"Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" - Cato the Elder with Scipio and Laelius (right). Cicero, writing his treatise On Old Age (left). Illustration to 'Formulae Honestae Vitae' by Saint Martin of Braga, Marcus Tullius Cicero's 'Cato Maior de Senectute' (Cato the Elder On Old Age) and 'Laelius de Amicitia' (Laelius On Friendship).Three philosophical discourses translated from Latin to French. Last quarter 15th, parchment, 29.5 x 20 cm. Fol.19.