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The Rosetta stone,an irregularly shaped stone of black basalt,found in 1799 near the town of Rosetta (Rashid) near Alexandria by Napoleon's armies. The inscription is a priestly decree affirming the royal cult of the 13-year old Ptolemy V. With its inscriptions by priests of Memphis, in Hieroglyphs, (suitable for a priestly decree) demotic (the native script used for daily purposes) and Greek (the language of the administration), it permitted Champollion,in 1821,to decypher hieroglyphs. EA 24