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Astrologers casting horoscopes during the celebrations for the birth of Timur (1336). A miniature painting from a manuscript of Akbarnama. India; 17th century. The Akbarnama, which literally means History of Akbar, is a biographical account of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, written in Persian. It includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and time.
The signs of the Zodiac from the mosaic floor of the cathedral of Otranto, southern Italy. September: a man in Phrygian cap pounds grapes with two wooden paddles. October: a farmer ploughing his field. The cathedral was built in 1088, the mosaic was completed in 1166. See also 40-11-24/36-46
Bearer of the demon's head, 10th century. A Persian representation of the constellation Perseus, who holds the head of Medusa, in accordance with the myth. From the star catalogue of the Persian astronomer Al-Sufi. It is shown in double aspect in order to show it as seen from the earth and reversed as on a star-globe.
The Rosetta stone,an irregularly shaped stone of black basalt,found in 1799 near the town of Rosetta (Rashid) near Alexandria by Napoleon's armies. The inscription is a priestly decree affirming the royal cult of the 13-year old Ptolemy V. With its inscriptions by priests of Memphis, in Hieroglyphs, (suitable for a priestly decree) demotic (the native script used for daily purposes) and Greek (the language of the administration), it permitted Champollion,in 1821,to decypher hieroglyphs. EA 24