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0310000141 Stove-tile with the arms of James I, c1603-c1625. Earthenware stove-tile in the form of a panel with the lion and unicorn, and the royal Stuart coat-of-arms and the 'IR' cypher ('Iacobus Rex') for King James VI of Scotland and I of England. The incorporation of the Tudor rose and the Scottish thistle at the base symbolises the union of the two crowns. The coat of arms reflected loyalty to the crown. Wood-burning stoves were often made up from elaborately decorated tiles which were being produced in England in small numbers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. By the end of the sixteenth century the severe shortage in the south of England of wood for burning meant that coal, from Newcastle, was the primary source of heating fuel. Coal was not suitable for burning in closed stoves. M&ME, 1981,3-6,1
Karl Marx (1818-1883) was an influential philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmen's Association. While Marx addressed a wide range of issues, he is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle." Canvas, 19th century.
Map of Pacific Ocean with New Guinea and South America showing Magellan's ship Victoria from Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ("Theatre of the World") is considered to be the first true modern atlas. Written by Abraham Ortelius and originally printed on May 20, 1570, in Antwerp, it consisted of a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved.