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Portrait of Pliny the Elder. From the Historia Naturalis, an immense encyclopedia probably completed in 77 by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder. The Historia makes no distinction between the real and the imaginary, but provides a fascinating insight into Roman learning in the 1st century. Siena, Italy; 15th century.
Map of Pacific Ocean with New Guinea and South America showing Magellan's ship Victoria from Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ("Theatre of the World") is considered to be the first true modern atlas. Written by Abraham Ortelius and originally printed on May 20, 1570, in Antwerp, it consisted of a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved.