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King Richard I Lionheart (1157-1199) watches Muslim prisoners being beheaded after the capture of Acre in 1189. When it became apparent that Saladin was not willing to pay the terms of the treaty at Acre, Richard had more than 3.000 Muslim prisoners executed on August 20 outside of Acre in full view of Saladin's camp. From Sebastien Mamerot's "Les Passages d'outremer faits par les Français contre les Turcs depuis Charlemagne jusqu'en 1462". Illuminated manuscript on parchment (287 sheets, 32x23 cm). Bourges, France; 1474-1475.
Emperor Karl V's war against Chaireddin (also known as Hayreddin Barbarossa, Grand Admiral of the Ottoman Navy), Turkish governor of Tunis. Karl V (without armour) at the head of a cavalry detach- ment which repelled a Turkish sortee from Goleta. charcoal and watercolour on paper,385 x 662 cm,Inv.2038 In 1535 the Spanish Empire attacked Tunis, then under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Holy Roman Emperor Karl V (Charles V) of the Habsburg dynasty assembled a huge army and war fleet. He defeated Barbarossa's fleet and, after a siege, captured Tunis on June 1 1535.
Richard I and Saladin jousting,around 1300-1340.Saladin is portrayed with a grotesque blue face,while Richard's face is hidden by his helmet. Both ride horses wearing elaborate caparisons. Detail from a page of Latin text from the "Luttrell Psalter", begun before 1340 for Sir Geoffrey Luttrell. Add.42130.fol.61.det (L).