Historic Dates - July

Battle of Nieuwpoort

2 July 1600

The Battle of Nieuwpoort was fought between a Dutch army under Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere and a Spanish army led by Habsburg Archduke Albrecht of Austria on 2 July 1600.

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Battle of Königgrätz

3 July 1866

The Battle of Königgrätz (also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové) was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire. Taking place near Königgrätz (Hradec Králové) and Sadowa (Sadová) in Bohemia on July 3 1866, it was an example of battlefield concentration, a convergence of multiple units at the same location to trap and/or destroy an enemy force between them.

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Summit conference Geneva 1955

18 July 1955

Summit Conference,Geneva, 1955: Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai A.Bulganin, US-President Dwight D. Eisenhower, French Prime Minister Edgar Faure and British Prime Minister Anthony Eden pose for the press in the courtyard of the Palais des Nations,Geneva

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Death of Caravaggio

18 July 1610

400th anniversary of the death of Italian Baroque painter Michelangelo Merisi Caravaggio. Bacchus, 1589 Canvas, 95 x 85 cm Inv.5312

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Establishment of the Benedictine Confederation by Pope Leo XIII

12 July 1883

The Order of Saint Benedict is a Roman Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities, observing the Rule of Staint Benedict. Within the order, each individual community maintains its own autonomy, while the organization as a whole exists to represent their mutual interests. The Benedictine Confederation, which was established on 12 July 1883 by Pope Leo XIII is the international governing body of the order.

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Opening of the Bastille Opera

13 July 1989

L'Opéra Bastille - the Bastille Opera - is a modern opera house in Paris, France and the home base of the Paris Opera. It's modern building was designed by architect Carlos Ott. The new opera house was inaugurated on the 200th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille.

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Death of Painter Gustav Klimt

14 July 1862

Gustav Klimt (14 July 1862 - 6 February 1918) was an Austrian painter, one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His works include colourful paintings, murals and sketches.

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Turkish Wars

22 July 1684

Turkish horsetails, insignia of high-ranking officers. Horsetails are topped by half-moons and are shown in front of a large Turkish flag, captured at the battle of Hamzsabek, July 22, 1684.

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Louis Bleriot's first flight across the English Channel

25 July 1909

Louis Bleriot's first flight across the English Channel on July 25, 1909. From "Domenica del Corriere".

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Birthday of Painter Max Liebermann

20 July 1847

Max Liebermann (20 July 1847 - 8 February 1935) was a German-Jewish painter and printmaker. He is best known for his graphic works, such as etching and lithography. Together with Lovis Corinth and Max Slevogt, Liebermann became an exponent of German Impressionism. While watching the Nazis celebrate their victory by marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Liebermann is reported to have uttered the famous quotation: "Ich kann gar nicht so viel fressen, wie ich kotzen möchte" - "I cannot eat as much as I would like to vomit."

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King Charles X of France signed the July Ordinances

25 July 1830

The July Ordinances, also known as the Four Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, were a series of decrees signed by Charles X on 25 July 1830 that were published in the Parisian newspaper "Moniteur" the following day. Among other things, the Ordiances suspended the liberty of the press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies of France and excluded the commercial bourgeoisie from future elections. They practically revoked the constitution and were the immediate cause of the French Revolution of 1830, also known als July Revolution.

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Director Michael Cacoyannis dies aged 90

25 July 2011

Michael Cacoyannis dies aged 90. Cypriot film-maker behind 1964 smash hit "Zorba the Greek" has passed away. Erich Lessing accompanied him during the making of this classic.

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Death of Conductor Herbert von Karajan

16 July 1989

Herbert von Karajan (1908 - 1989) was an exceptional talent and a remarkable personality of the world of classical music in the 20th century. A child prodigy at the piano, he followed a remarkable career. He was engaged as principal conductor of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, artistic director of the Salzburg Festival, director of the Vienna State Opera and a permanent guest conductor at the Scala in Milan. He went down in music history known as "Das Wunder Karajan" (the Karajan miracle). He died of a heart attack at age 81 in his house in Anif, Salzburg, and was buried at Ostfriedhof cemetery the following day. Erich Lessing's photo reportage captured unique moments of the famous conductor's life - In the years 1956 and 1957, he accompanied Herbert von Karajan during his engagements in Berlin, Lucerne, Salzburg and Vienna.

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