Historic Dates - February

Villa Tugendhat

1 February 2010

Villa Tugendhat is considered a masterpiece, designed by the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Built between the years 1928-1930 in Brno, in today's Czech Republic, for Fritz Tugendhat and his wife Greta, the villa soon became an icon of modern architecture. It was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2001. A reconstruction and restoration of the villa started in February 2010 with estimated costs of approximately 5.769.000. Erich Lessing made photos in the Villa Tugendhat around 2001.

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The Martyrs of Japan

5 February 1597

The Martyrs of Japan were Christians who were persecuted for their faith in Japan, mostly during the 17th century. On February 5 in 1597, 26 Christians were executed by crucifixion in Nagasaki, among them six European Franciscan missionaries, three Japanese Jesuits and seventeen Japanese laymen including three young boys.

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Birthday of Painter Gustav Klimt

6 February 1918

Gustav Klimt (14 July 1862 - 6 February 1918) was an Austrian painter, one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His works include colourful paintings, murals and sketches.

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Death of Emperor Peter the Great

8 February 1725

Peter I the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (9 June 1672 - 8 February 1725) ruled Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death. He carried out a policy of modernization and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into a major European power.

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Birthday of Scientist Charles Darwin

12 February 1809

Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was a British naturalist, best known for founding the scientific theory of evolution by natural selection. During a five-year voyage with the HMS Beagle he was able to establish himself as a respected scientist. The evidence he gathered during this voyage - for example, at the Galapagos Islands - helped him establish his theory of evolution. He published his results in his popular book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859.

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French Revolution of 1848

14 February 1848

The French Revolution of 1848 was one of many revolutions in Europe at that time. The events of the revolution in France ended the orleans monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. The February revolution established the principle of the "right to work" (french: "droit au tavail").

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Birthday of Louis XV King of France

15 February 1710

Louis XV (15 February 1710 - 10 May 1774) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. Louis XV was a member of the House of Bourbon. He enjoyed a favorable reputation at the beginning of his reign. In time, the debauchery of his court and the cession of New France led Louis to become one of the most unpopular kings in the history of France. His ill-advised financial policies weakened the monarchy and arguably led to the French Revolution which broke out 15 years after his death.

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Locust Invasion in Iran

15 February 1952

In 1952, swarms of locusts (short-horned grasshoppers) from Saudi Arabia threatened Iran's harvest. In a unique cooperation, US and Soviet pilots and specialists sprayed the infested areas and prevented a major catastrophe.

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Death of Mongol Emperor Tamerlane

18 February 1405

Tamerlane (8 April 1336 - 18 February 1405), originally known as Timur (meaning as much as "iron" in the extinct Chatagai language) founded the Timurid Empire and the Timurid dynasty. He conquered parts of Western, South and Central Asia. He was a controversial figure - for example, he claimed not to be a "man of blood" or an agressor, while his troops sacked the city of Aleppo. The Gur-e-Amir or Guri Amir in Samarkand, Uzbekistan serves as his mausoleum.

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Death of Artist Hundertwasser

19 February 2000

Friedensreich Regentag Dunkelbunt Hundertwasser (born as Friedrich Stowasser, 15 December 1928 - 19 February 2000) was an Austrian painter and architect. Although controversial, he was one of the best-known contemporary Austrian artists of the late 20th century.

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Death of Tyrolean Patriot Andreas Hofer

20 February 1810

Andreas Hofer was a Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot. He was the leader of the Tyrolean rebellion in 1809, defending his home country against a French-Bavarian occupation. After successfully fighting Napoleon's troops in several battles, he was eventually captured and executed. Andreas Hofer is celebrated a national hero in Tyrol - there are many statues in his honor and his day of death is commemorated annually. He is considered a controversial figure by some, because of his anti-modern and anti-Enlightenment views.

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Carnival

22 February

Carnival is a festive season usually celebrated in February, involving public parades, parties and balls, where people dress up in costumes or masquerade. Carnival is traditionally held in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries, although variations like Mardi Gras, Shrove Tuesday or Pancake Day are celebrated in other countries as well.

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Diocletianic Persecution of Christians

22 February 303 CE

Until Emperor Constantine's edict of Milan in 313, Christians had always been subject to discrimination and persecution in the Roman empire, the last and most severe being the Diocletianic Persecution in 303. Many individuals were willing to sacrifice their lives to their belief. Among some Christians, a certain "cult of the martyrs" emerged, exaggerating and sometimes forging the martyr's tales.

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Death of Painter Oskar Kokoschka

22 February 1980

Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 1886 - 22 February 1980) was an Austrian artist. Working as painter, printmaker, poet and playwright he is best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. He had a passionate affair with Alma Mahler - some of his greatest works are tibuted to her. In 1953 he co-founded the "School of Seeing," an international summer academy for the visual arts.

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Premiere of Monteverdi's Opera "L'Orfeo" in Mantua

24 February 1607

Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) - 29 November 1643) was a famous composer, who's work marked the transition from Renaissance music to the style of the Baroque period. On 24 February 1607, his opera "L'Orfeo" premiered at the Ducal Palace in Mantua. Based on the Greek legend of Orpheus, it is one of the earliest operas still regularly performed.

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Birthday of Emperor Constantine the Great

27 February 272 CE

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February 272 - 22 May 337), better known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 306 to 337. He was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. His Edict of Milan in 313 proclaimed religious tolerance in the Roman Empire, putting an end to the persecutions of Christians. Contantin transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into the new imperial residence of Constantinople.

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Birthday of Oskar Kokoschka

1 March 1886

Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 1886 - 22 February 1980) was an Austrian artist. Working as painter, printmaker, poet and playwright he is best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. He had a passionate affair with Alma Mahler - some of his greatest works are tibuted to her. In 1953 he co-founded the "School of Seeing," an international summer academy for the visual arts.

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